Monday, February 11, 2013

Tags' Symbols and Rules, Markup Languages

Do you know that the first computer language for developing websites that a web developer should learn is a markup language? It is used to markup a document, have symbols and rules for doing elements and attributes of a document, and that's why it is the most used type of computer language on the World Wide Web (simply as WWW or W3,) because without this, you can't markup correctly, such as no link, no table, no title, no description, and no keyword, just a graphical text.

A markup language that have an application, can be called as a "generalized markup". The most used generalized markup in this time is listed below:
  • A Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML for short,) is developed and standardized by the International Organization for Standardization (or ISO) in 1986. Most tags of a SGML does have a start tag and end tag, same to the tags of the SGML standard and SGML-based languages' HTML and XML standard. SGML was extended from Generalized Markup Language (GML). SGML and GML are both systems for organizing and tagging elements, but SGML wasn't based on GML, they are completely different! Because GML has different symbols such ordered list's start :ol tag and end :eol. tag, and most of GML tags doesn't have an end tag such :li. for defining list item, :h1. to define heading 1 and :p. to define a paragraph.
There are many SGML-based languages or applications of a Standard Generalized Markup Language exist now and the most used of those languages are listed below:
  1. Hyper Text Markup Language (also known as HTML,) is have their own set of predefined tags for doing elements and attributes of a document. .html and .htm are the file name extensions for HTML files. The HTML tags that has no end tags can written as just their start tag such <br> without closing it and can be closed as <br/>, all HTML tags are case-insensitive and even the format that you've been made wasn't right, most web browsers will display it correctly. And because of these, HTML doesn't have application.
  2. XML means Extensible Markup Language, originally designed to carry data and have an .xml filename extension. In XML, all elements must properly closed and the tags' capitalization are case-sensitive. The XML standard tags are not predefined as HTML, so you could invent your own tag such start <invented> tag and end </invented> tag, this tag was just invented. There are now many XML-based languages exist because of its proper and well-organized syntax, including the popular XHTML.
    The often used families of markup languages of Extensible Markup Language, also known as XML-based languages or applications, are listed below:
    1. XHTML means Extensible Hyper Text Markup Language, it has the same set of functions and tags as HTML, but with syntax as strict and clean as XML, such a tag that has no end tag in HTML such <br> or <br/> must be properly closed as <br /> and tags' capitalization are case-sensitive like XML, and that's why it's in the family of XML instead of HTML. The filename extensions that build for XHTML files are .xhtml and .xht but XHTML can also use the XML standard and HTML's filename extensions. Yet, the .html filename extension is still the most used.
    2. A computer language, Atom (standard) is used for developing web feeds. Atom documents has a filename extension of .atom, or .xml as it is an aplication of Extensible Markup Language. An HTML document can be linked to an ATOM feed using <link> tag. Atom is more advanced syndication format than RSS.
    3. Rich Site Summary also known as Really Simple Syndication (abbreviated as RSS,) is a family of news feed formats and their documents have .rss or .xml filename extension. The first version of RSS was released in March 1999, it is older than Atom standard which was first published in December 2005, and a former primary method of web content syndication before Atom.
The markup language of the year 2013 is not based on any generalized markup but the fifth revision of Hyper Text Markup Language:
  • The syntax of HTML5 is not based on SGML despite the similarity on their markup such tags were surrounded by angle brackets < and > and most elements are in between the start tag and the end tag, and can even have an attribute. But the fact, most old HTML documents are not perfectly valid to be called as SGML documents and not the same such any HTML end tags cannot be "SHORTTAG" like </> unlike SGML standard and because of this, HTML5 abandons any attempt to considered HTML5 as an SGML application. HTML5 provides a number of new markup, and much more easy to write than SGML standard.
Almost all versions of Hyper Text Markup Language has XML-based versions which called as an Extensible Hyper Text Markup Language. HTML5 will surely extend to XML-based language:
  1. XHMTL5 stand for Extensible HTML5, a XML-based language with a set of XML-converted HTML5 tags. Here is a few XHTML5 script below:
    Source Code:
    <h1>This is Heading 1</h1>
    <h6>This is Heading 6</h6>
    This text contains<br />a line break.
    <p>This is a paragraph.</p>
    This text contains <a href="">"a links to our homepage"</a>.
    <b>This is bold text</b>.
    This text contains <i>"a different quality of text"</i> or <i>"an alternative voice or mood"</i>.
    <table border="1">
    <th>This is the Row 1's Header Cell A</th>
    <th>This is the Row 1's Header Cell B</th>
    <td>This is the standard cell A of row 2.</td>
    <td>This is the standard cell B of row 2.</td>


    This is Heading 1

    This is Heading 6
    This text contains
    a line break.

    This is a paragraph.

    This text contains "a links to our homepage". This is bold text. This text contains "a different quality of text" or "an alternative voice or mood".
    This is the Row 1's Header Cell A This is the Row 1's Header Cell B
    This is the standard cell A of row 2. This is the standard cell B of row 2.
As you can see on the HTML5 Source above, with your logic, an element is in between the start tag and the end tag. Most XHTML tags has a start tag which doesn't have any slash and an end tag which has a single forward slash.
  • <h1> tag defines the largest heading.
  • <h6> tag defines the smallest heading.
  • <br /> tag forced a line break.
  • <p> tag creates top and bottom margins for a paragraph.
  • <a> tag with an href attribute with a value of the URL like href="" added a hyperlinks to the URL.
  • <b> tag makes the text bold but doesn't give a weight into any search engine.
  • <i> tag make text an alternative voice or mood, and display it in italic.
  • <table> tag defines a table and the border attribute on it with a value of 1 like border="1" adds a table border with a width of 1. This tag has an element of the other 3 tags:
    • <tr> tag created a row for a cell of the table.
    • <th> tag is an optional that defines a header cell.
    • <td> tag defines a standard cell for the content.
If your logical thinking is good enough, you will surely got some rules of XHTML5 with this simple explanation. Like such rule, that there are some tags that doesn't have an end tag, like <br /> tag which needed to be closed by adding space and slash " /" before the right-angle bracket ">" in XHTML5. Note that there's a lot of HTML5 tags and attributes that didn't mentioned here!

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